The first spot has to go to the man who coined the term geography, Eratosthenes (c. 275-194 BC). He invented a system of latitude and longitude and he also might have calculated the distance from earth to the sun and invented the leap day. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2010. Eratosthenes hired a man to pace the distance between the two cities and learned they were 5,000 stadia apart, which is about 800 kilometers. He invented Syene (near today's Aswan) is located some 800 km up the Nile river from Alexandria very close to the tropic of Cancer (2327'N), so at the time of the summer solstice the Sun's rays fall vertically down on Syrene at noon. The 200-foot ship was three-masted, square-rigged, and built of wood. [24], Eratosthenes was described by the Suda Lexicon as a (Pentathlos) which can be translated as "All-Rounder", for he was skilled in a variety of things: He was a true polymath. Aves, A., Magill, F. and Moose, C. (1998). Your email address will not be published. Pacific Ocean- Largest, deepest, lots of islands and seamounts. The Greek astronomer Eratosthenes becomes the first person to determine the circumference of the Earth. 2. how do floodplains jeopardize the livelihoods of agricultural workers. During the Middle Ages, most scholars accepted Eratosthenes' circumference, though Christopher Columbus used Posidonius' measurement to convince his supporters that he could quickly reach Asia by sailing west from Europe. On oceanography he was considered an . OCEANOGRAPHY-Study of the Oceans Contributions of the ancients 1. Euclid, Greek Eukleides, (flourished c. 300 bce, Alexandria, Egypt), the most prominent mathematician of Greco-Roman antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements. Notable explorations were undertaken by the Greeks, the Romans, the Polynesians, the Phoenicians, Phytheas, Herodotus, the Vikings, the Portuguese and Muslims. He studied at Plato's school in Athens. [19] This book is the first recorded instance of many terms still in use today, including the name of the discipline geography. Your email address will not be published. Due to the increased risk of food poisoning, eating this popular, Petra was ecstatic over Jane and Rafaels happy ending during the series finale, fearing that she would never find love again. The ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes is dubbed the father of geography. He was the first to use the word geography, and he also had a small-scale understanding of the planet that helped him determine the earths circumference. He drew the meridian through Alexandria, Syene, Rhodes and the mouth of Boresthenes (Dniester). In the Library of Alexandria he had access to various travel books, which contained various items of information and representations of the world that needed to be pieced together in some organized format. When you multiply by wall height, you get CFM. Transit of Venus across the sum verified orbits 2. However, he never wanted to specialize in a single subject, for which some reproached him. He could then use simple proportions to find the Earths circumference 7.2 degrees is 1/50 of 360 degrees, so 800 times 50 equals 40,000 kilometers. Phoenicians (from what is now Syria and Lebanon) navigated and traded around Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Africa; 2000BC 2. Omissions? First maps showing water (river charts) 3800 B.C. One of the main contributions of Eratosthenes to science and astronomy was his important work regarding They helped find new colonies, explored some of North America and were great navigators. Eratosthenes now continued from his knowledge about the Earth. Everything that pleases the Muses and kings you yourself gave to your son. He spent most of his life in the city of Alexandria in Egypt. These works and his great poetic abilities led the pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes to seek to place him as a librarian at the Library of Alexandria in the year 245 BC. His writings included a poem inspired by astronomy, as well as works on the theatre and on ethics. Losing the ability to read and to observe nature plagued and depressed him, leading him to voluntarily starve himself to death. Modern Geographys founder, Alexander von Humboldt. Guillaumin (eds.). With the parallels and meridians, Eratosthenes located the known countries and cities. He also measured the length of the shadow on the ground. Eratosthenes also found a solution to the so-called Deliano problem, or the doubling of the cube. They also were among the first people to use astronomical observations of the stars to help them navigate across the ocean. establishing a center of the study of marine science and navigation on Portugal What did Eratosthenes of Cyrene contribute to marine science and why is it important? and more. Strabo argues it was Alexander's interpretation of their "real intent" in recognizing that "in some people there prevail the law-abiding and the political instinct, and the qualities associated with education and powers of speech". In mathematics, the sieve of Eratosthenes (Greek: ), one of a number of prime number sieves, is a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit. [2][3] He was also the first to calculate Earth's axial tilt, which has also proved to have remarkable accuracy. He expanded the library's holdings: in Alexandria all books had to be surrendered for duplication. Eratosthenes (D.W.) Roller (ed., Trans.) Eratosthenes contributions to Mathematics are very notable and well known. Another of his great contributions to geography was the study and map that he made of the route of the Nile River from Khartoum, in which he included the Ethiopian tributaries. He created an algorithm to find prime numbers that is known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes. Bailey, Ellen. He also calculated the Earths tilt axis. Eratosthenes made major contributions to geography. He did not use the mythological descriptions that were common at the time, but relied on military texts to carry out his work. This, so it happens, and when seeing the offering, someone says: this is the work of the Cyrenean Eratosthenes. Despite the fact that in Greek times young people from wealthy families had more access to education, there were male academies. Eratosthenes also calculated the distance from the Earth to the Moon and to the Sun, but with less accuracy. "Ptolemy's System of Seven Climata and Eratosthenes' Geography". Eratosthenes made major contributions to geography. I. Eratosthenes made maps, both of the world and sky and is said to have made a map that includes 675 stars. He acquired works such as the great dramas of Aeschylus and Euripides. Hipparchus divided the Earth's surface into 360 degrees. [6] His devotees nicknamed him Pentathlos after the Olympians who were well rounded competitors, for he had proven himself to be knowledgeable in every area of learning. It comes from the Old English words eor(th)e and ertha. Read about the life of Eratosthenes. The HMS Challenger originally was designed as a British warshipa steam corvette in the Royal Navyoutfitted with 17 guns and an engine capable of over 1,200 horsepower. During his time at the Library of Alexandria, Eratosthenes devised a calendar using his predictions about the, He was also very proud of his solution for. Hutchinson's Biography Database 1. But Eratosthenes, who had wide-ranging interests including poetry, theatre and ethics, was first and foremost an astronomer, and Alexandria was the place to go for astronomical studies. 4. Among the ancient Greek scholars Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle, Eratosthenes is the chief ones. b. Eratosthenes He was a Greek mathematician who had a profound interest in geography. He was the founder of Geography and holds the credit to calculate the circumference of the Earth. He reportedly fell into despair, and he is said to have committed suicide by voluntary starvation in 194 as a result. He was the first prose writer. Eratosthenes (c. 276194 bce), who had prepared a map of the Nile valley southward to the latitude of modern Khartoum, anticipated the correct answer when he reported that heavy rains had been observed to fall in the upper reaches of the river and that these History at your fingertips Oceanography Chapter 1 Oceanography Oceanus would be a better name for Earth, since oceans cover 70% surface (most major cities, resources, etc. Plato as "Architect of Science". [10] He then studied under Aristo of Chios, who led a more cynical school of philosophy. The book written by him describes the ekumene (inhabited) world. Despite his great contributions to science, his work was not replicated by many others, apparently because he did not get enough students to pass on his discoveries and theories. Alexander the Great conquered Cyrene in 332 BC, and following his death in 323 BC, its rule was given to one of his generals, Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. However, it was in geography where he proved to be more skillful for he was one of the greatest of all ancient geographers. He died in 194BC at 82 in Alexandria. The numbers from one to 400 are written in a table, with the numbers one to 20 across the top row. The exact length of the units (stadia) he used is doubtful, and the accuracy of his result is therefore uncertain. He created a longitude and latitude system, as well as a map of the world. He is also regarded as the Father of Geography.. . Cyrene, then a Greek city, is now the town of Shahhat in Libya. The first person to determine the size of Earth was Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who produced a surprisingly good measurement using a simple scheme that combined geometrical calculations with physical observations. His prime number sieve made it simple for Greek mathematicians (and now-frustrated modern students!) is credited for two important contributions to oceanography: 1. In 1609 he published Astronomia Nova, delineating his discoveries, which are now called Keplers first two laws of planetary motion. Eratosthenes was called Beta (the second letter of the Greek alphabet) because he was never first, but he is more famous than his Alpha teachers because his discoveries are still used today. A Tradition of Exploration Norwegian pioneers throughout history The Viking Age From 800 to 1066 AD, the Vikings journeyed in their longships to explore and establish trade around Europe. He lived from 276 to 194 B.C. Eratosthenes is also well-known for his astronomical achievements. Between 276 and 195 BC, he created one of the first known maps of the world, but his most significant contribution was the concept of latitude and longitude. The correct answer is to determine the Earths circumference. Eratosthenes' method of measuring Earth's circumference, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Eratosthenes, Famous Scientists - Biography of Eratosthenes, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Eratosthenes, Eratosthenes - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It provides insights into economic, social, historic, culture, religious, political, and climate geography, plus oceanography, demographics, and more. He calculated the circumference of the Earth to be about 252,000 stadi which is equal to about 24,662 miles. Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek polymath: a mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. How Do You Get Rid Of Hiccups In 5 Seconds. This is the sieve's key distinction from using trial division to sequentially test each candidate number for divisibility by each prime. Eratosthenes may have been the first to use the word geography. He used as a basis the ecliptic movement, that is, the movement of the sun observed by the apparent changes of the same from the earth. Eratosthenes measured Earths circumference mathematically using two surface points to make the calculation. By this they meant to say that Eratosthenes was second best in all areas, as he never wanted to specialize in any. Defending the theory that vision is due to a flow emanating from the eye, Ptolemy analyzed the reflection of light on flat and spherical mirrors, and its refraction when it crosses the surface between two transparent media. Islandwide Breakfast Delivery, GitHub export from English Wikipedia. He was a follower of Aristotle in his belief about the spherical shape of the Earth which he considered to be placed in the centre of the universe. He sought to maintain the reputation of the Library of Alexandria against competition from the Library of Pergamum. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like The largest geographic feature on the surface of Planet Earth is _____., The important contribution to navigation made by Eratosthenes in the third century BC was _____., The explorer who advanced oceanography by introducing systematic soundings, or depth measurements, was _____. He never married. But he did not find in them a style that appealed to him. Name the major oceans and their main characteristics. Geography is a chorographic discipline. He also realized that streams eroded continents and deposited sediments into the ocean. Definition. The word geography comes from a Middle French word that was first used in 1540. He also calculated the tilt axis of the Earth. Fragments Collected and Translated, with Commentary and Additional Material. When You Breathe In Your Diaphragm Does What. Atlantic Ocean- long, narrow, parrallel sides 68% of freshwater runs into it. Eratosthenes was one of the most pre-eminent scholarly figures of his time, and produced works covering a vast area of knowledge before and during his time at the Library. Eckerman, Chris. Eratosthenes, in full Eratosthenes of Cyrene, (born c. 276 bce, Cyrene, Libyadied c. 194 bce, Alexandria, Egypt), Greek scientific writer, astronomer, and poet, who made the first measurement of the size of Earth for which any details are known.

March 14, 2023